Haemorrhoids, also known as piles, are symptomatic arteriovenous vessels in the anus and lower rectum. Haemorrhoids are involved in fine-tuning anal continence, as they swell up to strengthen the anal musculature to control leakage of intestinal contents. These anorectal vascular tissues are found in the anal canal of every human body, including foetuses and babies. Haemorrhoids can be classified into two categories: internal and external. Internal haemorrhoids are located inside the rectum and are usually not visible or felt. Straining or irritation during bowel movement can damage a haemorrhoid’s delicate surface and result in bleeding. Straining may also push an internal haemorrhoid through the anal opening, leading to a prolapsed haemorrhoid. External haemorrhoids are positioned under the skin around the anus. Itching or bleeding occurs when these piles are irritated. The blood pool may also form a clot that causes severe pain, swelling and inflammation.

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